Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2018, Page: 10-15
A Survey of Ectoparasites of Wild Bird Species at Two Gallery Forests Along River Benue at Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria
Stephanie Mdzuami Adelusi, Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Isegbe Emmanuel Onah, Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom-Jos, Nigeria
Edward Agbo Omudu, Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 14, 2018;       Accepted: Jun. 28, 2018;       Published: Jul. 24, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.aje.20180202.12      View  547      Downloads  26
Abstract
A survey of ectoparasite species infesting wild birds at two gallery forests in Makurdi was investigated to provide baseline information on the types of ectoparasites infesting wild birds. Birds were trapped from September 2015 to August 2016; a combination of visual examination and dust ruffling technique was used to remove ectoparasites from live birds. Specimens were preserved in labeled vials containing 70% alcohol. The parasites were identified using standard taxonomic keys when viewed under a light microscope. A total of 254 birds were captured out of which, 174 (68.5%) were infested with 1,294 ectoparasites (1,208 lice, 25ticks, 50 mites and 11 flies). The birds had high single infestation 107(42.1%). Ectoparasitic infestation varied significantly between months (F(11, 253)=2.620, P<0.05) and between bird species (F(58, 253)=2.353, P<0.05), with the months of May and June showing higher infestations and at the Mu gallery Forest. The study concludes that there is high prevalence of ectoparasites on wild birds at gallery forests hence making the forests possible reservoir for ectoparasites for domestic birds. The study recommends further studies to determine the effects of parasites on the health of wild birds and possible transmission of parasites from wild to domestic birds.
Keywords
Disease, Host, Infestation, Lice, Prevalence, Vectors
To cite this article
Stephanie Mdzuami Adelusi, Isegbe Emmanuel Onah, Edward Agbo Omudu, A Survey of Ectoparasites of Wild Bird Species at Two Gallery Forests Along River Benue at Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria, American Journal of Entomology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp. 10-15. doi: 10.11648/j.aje.20180202.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Moyer, B.R andClayton, D.H. (2014). Avian Defenses AgainstEctoparasites.Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT84112, USA.
[2]
Biu, A.A., Agbede, R.I.S., and Peace, P. (2007). Studies on ectoparasites of poultry in Maiduguri, Nigeria, Journal of Parasitology, 28:69-72.
[3]
Al-Saffar, T.M. and Al-Mawal, E.D. (2008). Some Hematological changes in chickens infected with Ectoparasites in Mosul. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 22: 95-100.
[4]
Clayton,D.H, Koop, J.A.H, Harbison, C.W, Moyer, B.R and Bush, S.E. (2010). How Birds Combat Ectoparasites.The Open Ornithology Journal, 3:41-71.
[5]
Loye, J.E. and Carroll, S.P. (1991). Nest ectoparasite abundance and cliff swallowcolony site selection, nestling development, and departure time. In Bird–parasite interactions: Ecology, evolution and behaviour, J. E. Loye and M.Zuk (eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., Pp. 221–241.
[6]
Clayton, D.H. and Walther, B.A. (1997). Collection and Quantification of Arthropod parasites of Birds in: Clayton, D. H. and Moore, J. (eds). Host-parasite evolution: general principles and avian models. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Pp 419-440.
[7]
Moller, A.P. (1993). Ecto-parasites increase the cost of reproduction in their hosts.Journal of Animal Ecology62: 309–322.
[8]
Santiago-Alarcon, D., Whiteman, N.K., Parker, P.G., Ricklefs, R.E andValkiunas, G. (2008). Patterns of Parasite Abundance and Distribution in Island Populations of GalapagosEndemic Birds.Journal of Parasitology.94(3): 584-590.
[9]
Sekercioglu, C.H. (2002). Impacts of birdwatching on human and avian communities.Environmental Conservation,29: 282–289.
[10]
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2003). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: AFrameworkfor Assessment.Island Press. Washington, DC.
[11]
Roberson, D. (2014). Bird Families of the World. Retrieved fromcreagrus.home.montereybay.com/list.html on 20th January 2015.
[12]
Alves, R.R.N, Leite, R.C.L, Souto, W.M.S, Bezerra, M.M.D and Loures-Ribeiro, A. (2013).Ethno-ornithology and Conservation of Wild Birds in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil.Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 9:14.
[13]
Nnadi, P.A. andGeorge, S.O. (2010). A Cross-Sectional Survey on Parasites of Chickens in Selected Villages in the Sub humid Zones of South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Parasitology Research Vol. 2010, Article ID 141824, 6 pages.
[14]
Carleton, R.E (2008). Ectoparasites affect hemoglobin and percentages of immature erythrocytes but not hematocrit in nestling Eastern Bluebirds. The Wilson journal of Ornithology, 120: 565-568.
[15]
Chen, D. andChen, H.W. (2013).Using the Köppen classification to quantify climate variation and change: An example for 1901–2010.Environmental Development, 6, 69-79.
[16]
Borrow, N. andDemey, R. (2013). Birds of Western Africa, Christopher Helm, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing 50 BedfordSquare, London. 511pp
[17]
Inci, A., Dik, B., Kibar, M., Yildirim, A. and Duzlu, O. (2010). Chewing Lice (Phtheraptera) Species on Wild Birds in Coppadocia Region, Turkey.TurkiyeParasitol. Derg, 34:174-178.
[18]
Johnson, K. P., Shreve, S.M. andSmith, V.S. (2012). Repeated Adaptive Divergence of Microhabitat Specialization in avian feather lice.BMC Biology,10:52.
[19]
Dik, B. and Halajiam, A. (2013).Chewing Lice (Phtheraptera) of Several Species of Wild Birds in Iran, With New Records.Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases.7(1): 83-89.
[20]
Stiling, P. D. (1996). Ecology: Theories and Applications. Prentice Hall International,Inc, USA. pp 275-301.
[21]
Rozsa, L., Reiczigel, J. and Majoros, G. (2000). Quantifying parasites in samples of hosts.Journal of Parasitology, 86: 228–232.
[22]
Sychra, O., Literak, I., Podzemny, P., Harmat, P.and Hrabak, R.(2011). Insect Ectoparasites onWild Birds in Czech Republic During the Pre-Breeding Period. Parasite.18:13-19.
[23]
Tanasak, C., Charoonluk, J., Ruangrat, B., Kacha, C., Pavince, C., Sarin, S., Surachit, W., Kanokporn, T., Kridsada, C. andParntep, P. (2010). Ectoparasitic Fauna of Birds, and Volantand Non-Volant Small Mammals Captured at Srinakasin Dam, Kanchanabur, Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medical Public Health.41(3):526-535.
[24]
Su, G.I.S., Amil, C.J.A., Juan, J.A.P.S., Su, L.L.S., Maguad, G.S., Salinas, R.A.F., Raggragio, E.M., Santiago,A.T.S.A. andRamos, G.B. (2013). Ectoparasitic Survey of Quarantined Animals in a Wildlife Rescue Center in Quezon City, Philippines.World Journal of Agricultural Research,1(3): 44-47.
[25]
Adang, L.K., Oniye, S.J., Ezealor, A.U., Abdu, P.A., Ajanusi, J.O. andYoriyo, K.P. (2008).(Ectoparasites of the Laughing Dove Streptopeliasenegalensis(Linnaeus, 1766)(Aves: Columbidae) in Zaria, Nigeria. Lundiana,9:67-71.
[26]
Adang, K.L., Oniye, S.J., Ezealor, A. U., Abdu, P.A., Ajanusi, O.J., andYoriyo, K.P. (2009). Ectoparasites and Gastro-Intestinal Helminths of Black-Billed Wood Dove (Turturabyssinicus) and Vinaceous Dove (Streptopeliavinacea) Hartlaub and Finsch 1870 in Zaria, Nigeria. The pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 10:850-856.
[27]
Edosomwan, E.U. and Amadasun, E. (2008). Ectoparasites of some birds species in Ogbazoo in Benin City, Nigeria. Bioscience Research Communications, 20: 231-235.
[28]
Umar, A.Y. and Shuaib, G.A.(2017). Prevalence of helminth parasites of domestic pigeons (Columba livia) in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State.Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 38:44-47.
[29]
Adelusi, S.M., Vajime, C.G., Omudu, E.A., Okpotu, R.O. and Onazi, F.O. (2014). Avian Parasitism in Makurdi, Nigeria: Do Wild Birds Serve as Reservoir for Domestic Birds? Nigerian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.6:11-15.
[30]
Smith, V.S. (2001). Avian louse phylogeny (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera):a cladistic study based on morphology. Zoological Journal of the LinneanSociety, London,132: 81-144.
[31]
Girisgin, O.A., Dik, B. and Girisgin, O. (2013). Chewing Lice (Phtheraptera) Species of Wild Birds in Northwestern Turkey with New Host Record.International Journal of Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.Volume 217-221.
[32]
Reeves, W.K., Beck, J., Orlova, M.V., Daly,J.L.,Pippin, K., Revan,F. and Loftis, A.D. (2016). Ecology of Bats, Their Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens on Saint Kitts Island. Journal of Medical Entomology, 53(5): 1218-1225.
Browse journals by subject