Volume 2, Issue 1, March 2018, Page: 1-5
Comparison Study Of Toxicity Bacillus thuringensis from Soil Isolate and Mulberry Leaves in Indonesia
Akhmad Rizali, Department of Agroechotechnology, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarbaru, Indonesia
Received: Mar. 30, 2018;       Accepted: Apr. 19, 2018;       Published: May 9, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.aje.20180201.11      View  791      Downloads  90
Background and Objective: Most strains of B. thuringiensis produce delta-endotoxin crystals toxic to lepidopteran insects such moth. But some strains of B. thuringiensis produce delta-endotoxin crystals toxic to dipteran insects such as mosquitoes and blackflies. To compare B. thuringiensis isolate from soil and mulberry leaves. Material and Methods:One gram of soil samples was suspended in 9 ml of sterile distilled water and shaken for 5 min. the upper layer of the soil suspension was transferred to a test tube and heated at 80°C for 5 min in water bath to kill non-spore-forming organism and vegetative cells to prepare the sporulated culture, bacteria were grown on nutrient agar pH 7.2, at 30°C for 4 days. The isolates were obtained from mulberry leaves collected in West Java, Indonesia, using the leaf-lift technique. Leaves were trimmed to fit inside a 100 mm petri dish. Abaxial leaf surfaces were placed in contact with nutrient agar, and a sterile, per forated stainless steel disk was placed on the leaf sections to ensure maximum contact with the agar. After the sample was coated with carbon and gold, it was observed and photographed with (SEM). However they had differences form crystal protein, but they had unique as insecticidal to control the same orders (mosquitocidal). Results:The study found that B. thuringiensis serovar entomocidus INA288 produced large cuboidal-form crystals and B. thuringiensis serovar aizawai BUN 1-14 a little homology with serovar entomocidus INA288 but, B. thuringiensis israelensis ONR60A has irregular shaped crystal protein. Toxicity results that serovar entomocidus INA288, serovar aizawai BUN 1-14 and serovar israelensis ONR60A showed toxic to mosquito insects. which was composed of major protein of 130 kDa peptides. B. thuringiensis serovar entomocidus INA288 has 70 kDa and aizawai BUN 1-14 had 69 kDa. Conclusion: B. thuringiensis strain had different crystal protein form but had same toxicity.
B. Thuringiensis, Soil, Leaves
To cite this article
Akhmad Rizali, Comparison Study Of Toxicity Bacillus thuringensis from Soil Isolate and Mulberry Leaves in Indonesia, American Journal of Entomology. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2018, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.11648/j.aje.20180201.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Brar, S. K., Verma, M., Tyagi, R. D. and Valero, J. R. 2006. Recent advances in down streamprocessing and formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticide. Process Biochem, 41(2): 323-342.
Sanahuja, G., Banakar, R., Twyman, R. M. Capell, T. and Christou, P., 2011. Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial application, Plant Biotechnology. J., 9: 283-300.
Berliner, E. (1915). Oberdieschalaffsucht der mehlmottenraupe (Ephestiakuhniella Zeller) und ihrenerregerBacillusthuringiensis n. sp. Zangue. Entomol. 2: 29-56.
Mattes, O. (1927). Parasitarekrankheiten der mehnottenlarvaen und versucheoberihreverwndbarkeitalsbilogischebecampfungismittel. (Zuheich lire beitragzurzytologie de bacgerien). Gesell f. beford, gedam, naturw. Sitzber (Marbnog) 62: 381-417.
Rizali, A., Shin-ichiro Asano, Ken Sahara, Hisanori Bando, Bibiana W, Lay, SugyoHastowo and Toshihiko Iizuka.(1998). Novel Bacillus thuringiensis serovar aizawai strains isolated from mulberry leaves in Indonesia. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 33 (1): 111-114.
Bulla, L. A., faust, R. M., Andrews, R. and Goodman, N. (1985). Insecticidal bacilli, pp. 185-209. In: the Moleculer Biology of the Bacilli, Volume II. D. A. Dubnau (ed.). Academic Press, New York.
Heimpel, A. M. (1967). A critical review of Bacillus thuringiensisBerl. And other crystalliferous bacteria. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 12: 287-322.
Krieg. A. (1961). Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. In disease caused by certain sporeforming bacteria. Heimpel and Angus (eds.). 21-67.
Delucca, A. J. II, Simonson, J. G and Larson, A. D. (1981). Bacillus thuringiensis distribution in soils of the United States. Canadian J. Maicrobiol. 27: 865-870.
Dulmage, H. T. (1992). Insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis and their potential for pest control in Microbial control for pests and plant diseases and plant diseases 1970-1980 (ed. H. D Burges). Acad. Press. N. Y. PP.
Golberg, L. J. and Margalit, J. (1977). A bacterial spore demonstrating rapid larvicidal activity against Anopheles sergentii, Uranotaeniaunguiculata, Culexunivitattus, Aedesaegypti and Culexpipiens, Mosq. New 37: 355-358.
Pfannenstiel, M. A., Ross, E. J., Kramer, V. C. and Nickerson, K. W. (1984). Toxicity and composition of protease-inhibited Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis crystal. FEMSMicrobio. Lett. 21: 39-42.
Hastowo, S., Lay, B. W. and Ohba, M. (1982). Naturally occurring Bacillus thuringiensis in Indonesia. J. Apply. Bacteriol. 73: 108-113.
Iizuka, T., Ishino, M. and Nakajima, T (1982). Comparative morphology of Parasporal crystal and characterization of plasmid DNA from various subspecies of entomopathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Univ. 13: 423-431.
Asano, S., Bando, H. and Iizuka T. (1993). Amplification and identification of cryII genes from Baccilus thuringiensis by PCR procedures. J. Seric. Sci. Jpn. 62: 223-227.
Asano, S. (1996) Identification of cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis by PCR and isolation of unique insecticidal bacteria. Mem. Fac. Agric. Hokkaido Univ. 19: 529-563.
Baba, F., Asano, S. and Iizuka T. (1990). Purification of crystals from Bacillus thurigiensisby using Percoll. J. Sci. Jpn 59: 487-489.
Balarman, K., Hoti, S. L. and Manonmani, L. M (1981). An Idigenous virulent strain of Bacillus thuringiensis, highly pathogenic and specific to mosquitoes. Current Science 50: 199-200.
Burges, H. D. 1981. Microbial control of pest and plant disease. 1970-1980. Academic Press. 949 pp.
Burges, H. D. and N. W. Hussey, 1971. Microbial control of insects and mites. Academic Press. 876 pp.
Bulla, L. A., Jr., Kramer, K. J. and Davidson, L. I. (1977). Characterization of the entomocidal parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Bacteriol. 130: 375-383.
Held, G. A., Kawanishi, C. Y. and Huang, Y. –S. (1990). Characterization of the parasporal inclusion of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kyushuensis. J. Bacteriol. 481-483.
Iizuka, T. and Yamamoto, T. (1984). Serological properties of the mosquitocidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis and the morphology of its parasoral crystal. J. fac. Hokkaido Univ. 62: 98-114.
Iizuka, T., Sasaki, J., Asano, S. and Bando, H. (1995). Comparative studies on isolation and identification of Bacillus thuringiensis. Biotechnology and Enviro. Benefits, Vol. I, 143-153.
Ishiwata. S. (1901). On a kind of severe flacherie (sotto disease). Dainihon Sanshikaiho 114: 1-5.
Kalman, S., Kiehne, K. K., Libs, J. L. and Yamamoto, T. (1993). Cloning of novel cryIC-type gene from a strain Bacillus thuringiensis subs. Galleriae. Appl. Enviro. Microbio. 59: 1131-1137.
Kawalek, M. D., Benjamin, S., Lee, H. L. and Gill, S. S. (1995). Isolation and identification of novel toxin from a new mosquitocidal isolate from Malaysia, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Jegathesan. Apl. Enviro. Microbiol. 2965-2969.
Kim, K. H., Ohba. And aizawa. K. (1984). Purification of the toxic protein from Bacillus thuringiensis serotype 10 isolate demonstrating a preferential larvicidal activity to mosquito. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 44: 214-219.
Ohba, M. andAizawa, K. (1986). Insect toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from soils of Japan. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 47: 12-20.
Padua, L. E., Ohba, M. and Aizawa, K. (1984). Isolation of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain (serotype 8a:8b) highly and selectively toxic against mosqouito larvae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 44: 12-17.
Rejesus, B. M. and A. Sayaboc, (1990). Management of DBM with Apanteles plutellae prosfects in the Philippines. Paper presented in the second International Workshop on Diamondback Moth Management. Dec. 10-15, 1990. Tainna, Taiwan. 17 pp.
Shorey, H. H. and I. M. Hall.(1962). Effect of chemical and microbial insecticides on several insect pests of lettuce in southern California. J. Econ. Entomol. 56: 169-174.
Yu, Y. –M., Ohba, M. and Gill, S. S (1991). Characterization of mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Fukuokaensis crystal proteins. Appl. Enviro. Microbiol. 1075-1081.
Zhang, Y., Ku, Z., Chan, Z., Xu, B., Yuan, F., Chen, G., Zhong, T. and Ming, G. (1984). A new isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis possessing high toxicity against the mosquitoes. Acta MicrobilogicaSinica 24: 320-325.
Browse journals by subject