Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2017, Page: 11-15
A Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Their Predilection Sites on Some Livestock Sold in Wadata Market, Makurdi, Nigeria
Onah Isegbe Emmanuel, Federal College of Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom-Jos, Nigeria
Akor Aaron Anyebe, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Omudu Edward Agbo, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Uweh Philomena Odeh, Biology Department, College of Advanced and Professional Studies, Benue, Nigeria
Opoggen Love, Entomology Unit, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria
Idoko Marvin Agogo, Department of Community Health, Methodist College of Health Technology, Ebenta, Uwowku, Oju, Nigeria
Received: Apr. 27, 2017;       Accepted: May 5, 2017;       Published: Jun. 28, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.aje.20170101.13      View  1712      Downloads  84
An investigation of ectoparasites of some livestock sold in Wadata Market, Makurdi, Nigeria was conducted between August and October, 2014. Sixty (60) cattle, sheep, goat and poultry were examined. Visual screening, handpicking, use of forceps and brushing methods were employed and specific points were the ectoparasites were removed were noted. A total of 1,832 ectoparasites were recovered from the 240 livestock. Ticks had the highest prevalence of 1576(86%) followed by lice 134(7.3%) and fleas 122(6.7%). Mixed infestation was observed in all the livestock species examined. With respect to the sex the prevalence rate was not significantly different (P>0.05). The ectoparasites preferred the abdomen in cattle, sheep and goat while in poultry they preferred the wings. Further research to assess the impact of these parasites on the health and production performance of the free-range domestic animals are strongly recommended.
Ectoparasites, Livestock, Ticks, Lice, Flea, Makurdi, Infestation, Prevalence
To cite this article
Onah Isegbe Emmanuel, Akor Aaron Anyebe, Omudu Edward Agbo, Uweh Philomena Odeh, Opoggen Love, Idoko Marvin Agogo, A Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Their Predilection Sites on Some Livestock Sold in Wadata Market, Makurdi, Nigeria, American Journal of Entomology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2017, pp. 11-15. doi: 10.11648/j.aje.20170101.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rechav Y and Nuttall PA. The effects of male ticks on the feeding performance of immature stages of Rhipcephlus sanquineus and Amblylomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). Experimental Applied Acarinalogy, 2000; 24:569-578.
Soulsby EJ. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals (7th edition). Baillere Tindall, London, 1986; Pp.291–318.
Combes C. Parasitism: The ecology and evolution of intimate interactions. University of Chicago Press, USA, 2001; pp728.
Adene DF and Dipeolu OO. Survey of blood and ectoparasites of domestic fowls in Ibadan, Western State if Nigeria. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 1975; 23:333-335.
Awuni JA. Strategies for the Improvement of Rural Chicken Production in Ghana. Accra Veterinary Laboratory, Ghana, 1990.
Calnek BN, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR and Saif YM. Diseases of Poultry. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA. 1997.
Byford RL, Craig ME and Crosby BL. A review of Ectoparasites and Their Effect on cattle production. New Mexico. Cameron, 1992.
Nnadozie VO. Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Local Chicken in Nsukka Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. 1996.
Parola P, Inukoma H, Camicas JL, Bronqui P, and Raoult D. Detection and identification of spotted fever group Rickettiae and Ehrlichae in Africa ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2001; 7(6): 10114-7.
Haward RF and James MT. Entomology in human and animal health. Macmillan Publication Co., New York, USA. 1979; pp65.
Permin A and Hansen JW. Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of poultry parasites. FAO Animal Health Manuals 4. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome, Italy, 1998; pp160.
Ruff MD. Important parasites in poultry production systems. Veterinary Parasitology, 1999;84(3-4):337-347.
Ofukwu RA and Akwuobu CA. Aspects of epidemiology of ectoparasites infestation of sheep and goats in Makurdi North central, Nigeria. Tanzania. Veterinary Journal, 2010; 27(1): 36-42.
Parola P and Raoult D. Ticks and tick borne bacterial diseases in humans; an emerging infectious threat Infect Dis. 2011; 15(6): 897-928.
Hall CM. A Survey on Ectoparasites on Domestic fowls and Guinea fowls in Gongonia, Navrongo. University for Develoment Studies, Navrongo, Ghana. 2006; pp. 65.
Ohaeri CC and Ugwu AU. Survey of Ectoparasites of Farm Animals. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 2013; Vol.5: 2277-0062.
Yacob HT, Yalow AT and Dink AA. Ectoparasite Prevalence in Sheep and Goats in and Around Wolaita Soddo, Southern Ethiopia, Revue Med. Vet., 2008;159: 450-454.
Regasa TD, Tsegay AK and Waktole H. Prevalence of major ectoparasite of calves and associated risk factors in and around Bishoftu town. African Journal of Agricultural research. 2015; 10(10):1127-1135.
Onu SH and Shiferaw TZ. Prevalence of ectoparasite infestation in Bench Maji zone, South West Ethiopia. Vert world, 2013; 6(6): 291-294.
Hoogstraal H. Ticks of the Sudan. United States. Nava Medical Research Unit. 3 Cairo Egypt. 1956; Pp1-1000.
Ouhelli H and Pandey S. Prevalence of Cattle ticks in Morocco. Tropical Animal Health Production. 1982; 14:151-154.
Tongjura JD, Amuga GA, Ombugadu RJ, Azamu Y, and Mafuiya, HB. Ectoparasites Infesting Livestock in Three Local Government Areas (LGAS) Of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 2012; Vol 7 (No 1).
Cameron D. The northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum C. and F., 1877). Canada Journal Research Section D. 1938; 16:230-254.
Browse journals by subject